I think therefore I BLOG!

 First of all, the truth is that I have no idea what blogging was all about. I had asked some people what blogging was, and they had said that blogging was reading some books, then posting on your blog the summary of that book, or what you’ve learned from that book. That was how I started blogging. Afterwards, for me, blogging is expressing yourself about what you have learned from the book. I have learned a great deal about blogging, because blogging makes me feel creative. It is the way I share what I have learned. And also I learned how you can respect other people’s ideas, and copyright. It’s important to research your own facts. Don’t steal other people’s ideas. Respect copyright and provide attribution information properly. One of the best parts of blogging is that you can learn as you go.  Not every post has to be perfect. You can publish your way to success. The important thing is to start. 

And, if you have started, keep going.

OH sooooooo TOXIC

There are so many harmful chemicals in our planet, we must rely on toxicologist to figure out what they are, how much is lethal they are and how to dispose of them. The toxicologists not only they do to figure out what chemical makeups, but they also discover the treatments for poisoning ingestion and detection As we all know toxicology is the study of poisons, came from the Latin word of toxicus (which means poisonous).

 Toxicology is pre-eminently an applied science, dedicated for the enhancement of quality of life and for the protection of the environment. Poison it is any substance that can causes a harmful effect when administered. Poison is also quantitative concept, for almost any substance that being harmful at some doses but, at the same time, being without harmful effect at some lower dose. Toxicity is a substance that is poisonous or can cause of injury.Toxic term relates to poisonous or deadly effects on the body by inhalation, ingestion, or absorption, or by direct contact with a chemical. Toxicant used when talking about toxic substances that are produced by product of human-made activities. 

There are 6 major disciplines of toxicology such as:
  • Descriptive Toxicologist
  • Mechanistic Toxicologist
  • Clinical Toxicologist
  • Environmental Toxicologist
  • Regulatory Toxicologist
  • Forensic Toxicologist
Toxic substances 
A. Heavy Metals- use by humans plays an important role in determining their potential for health effects. Effect on health, by increasing the presence of heavy metals in air, water, soil, and food, and changing the structure of the chemical.
B. Solvents and Vapors-Everyone is exposed to solvents, vapors may pose a threat to the population.

C. Radiation and Radioactive Materials- release and propagation of energy in space or through a material medium in the form of waves.
D. Dioxin/Furans (or TCDD) -  by-product of chlorine processing in paper producing industries.
E. Pesticides - described as any physical, chemical, or biological agent that will kill an undesirable plant or animal pest.
F. Microbial toxins -Bacteria, fungi and algae are the microorganisms typically associated with microbial toxin production.
G. Mushroom toxins-produce a family of cyclic octapeptides that they called amanitins.
H. Plant Toxins-made by plants can be lethal. One of the main toxic proteins is "ricin" from the seeds of castor bean plant.
I. Animal Toxins-Venomous animals are defined as those that are capable of produce a poison that can deliver by toxin through biting or stinging.

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Modern Toxicology 3rd edition, 2004 , by Ernest Hodgson PhD.
Clinical Chemistry techniques,principles,correlations 6th edition,2010, by Michael L. Bishop et al.

Introduction of Endocrinology


Endocrinology is the study of glands and tissue,is a part of branch of biology and medicine.It also takes place into consideration the concept of the chemical messengers that act locally on the cells that produce the substance (autocrine) and neighboring cells (paracrine).

 Hormones came from the Greek word of hormon means to excite, to arouse to activity. Hormone to be described it was a substance that release by the endocrine glands and transported to the bloodstream and tissue. Hormones are the chemical messenger’s that transmitted information to the cells and to control the physiologic functions.Hormones is a chemicals that move into body fluid after they made by one cell or a group of cells. 

Endocrine system

Endocrine system came from the Greek words of endo and krino means within and to separate. Endocrine system has similarities to the nervous system because these two control the system that overlap and integrated . Endocrine system and nervous system are the controllers of the flow and information between the different cells and tissue. 
The differences of Endocrine and nervous system, was endocrine much slower than the nervous system because hormones must travel through the circulatory system to reach target.

Functions of the endocrine system:

  • Growth and development 
  • Reproduction
  • Water balance
  • Ion regulation
  • Immune system regulation

Endocrinology by Kronenberg, et al.
Endocrine Pathophysiology by W. M. Kettyle,Arky

Basic Clinical Endocrinology 6th edition  by F.S. Greenspan,Gardner

TIETZ textbook of Clinical Chemistry 22nd edition by C. A Burtis,Ashwood)

6th edition,Anatomy and physiology  by Seely Stephens Tate